Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Scientific and Professional Dimensions

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Check system status. Toggle navigation Menu. Name of resource. Problem URL. Describe the connection issue. SearchWorks Catalog Stanford Libraries. Posttraumatic stress disorder : scientific and professional dimensions. Responsibility Julian D. Ford, Damion J. Grasso, Jon D. Elhai, Christine A.

Edition Second edition. Online Available online. Tricyclics have been around longer than SSRIs and have been more widely studied for treating anxiety disorders. They are as effective as the SSRIs, but many physicians and patients prefer newer drugs because the tricyclics sometimes cause dizziness, dry mouth, drowsiness, and weight gain. Therapy is well-regarded in the treatment of PTSD. It involves talking with a mental health professional to work through the experience and its impact on the individual.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Psychotherapy can occur one on one or in a group format. Therapy for PTSD usually lasts until the individual has learned to manage and cope with their experience and is able to be more functional.

Posttraumatic stress disorder : scientific and professional dimensions in SearchWorks catalog

Many types of psychotherapy can help people with PTSD. Some types target the symptoms of PTSD directly. Other therapies focus on social, family, or job-related problems. The doctor or therapist may combine different therapies depending on each person's needs. There are several parts to CBT, including:. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR is a treatment for traumatic memories that involves elements of exposure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy, combined with techniques sounds, eye movements, hand taps that create an alteration of attention.

There is some evidence that the therapeutic element unique to EMDR, attentional alteration, may be helpful in accessing and processing traumatic material. Brief psychodynamic psychotherapy focuses on the emotional conflicts caused by the traumatic event. This therapy helps a person understand how the past affects the way they feel now. Through the retelling of the traumatic event to a calm and empathic counselor, the survivor achieves a greater sense of self-esteem , develops effective ways of thinking and coping, and more successfully deals with the intense emotions that emerge during therapy.

The therapist helps the survivor identify current life situations that set off traumatic memories and worsen PTSD symptoms. Group treatment is an ideal therapeutic setting because trauma survivors are able to seek help and support while sharing traumatic material in a safe environment.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

As group members achieve greater understanding and resolution of their trauma, they often feel more confident and able to trust themselves and others. As they discuss and share trauma-related shame, guilt, fear, rage, doubt, and self-condemnation, they learn to focus on the present rather than the past. Telling one's story and directly facing the grief , guilt, and anxiety related to the trauma enables many survivors to cope with their symptoms, memories, and lives. One's children or partner may not understand why the person gets angry sometimes, or why they are under so much stress.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

They may feel scared, guilty , or even angry about the condition. In family therapy, a therapist helps the patient and family communicate, maintain good relationships and cope with tough emotions.

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Each person can express his or her fears and concerns. It's important to be honest about those feelings and to listen to others. The patient can talk about PTSD symptoms, triggers, and important parts of treatment and recovery. By doing this, the person's family will be better prepared to help them. Back Psychology Today.

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Back Magazine. Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. A Simple Key to True Belonging. Making Sense of Nutritional Psychiatry. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. How to Talk to a Vet. Symptoms Many people with PTSD tend to re-experience aspects of the traumatic event, especially when they are exposed to events or objects reminiscent of the trauma. Causes The cause of PTSD is unknown, but psychological, genetic, physical, and social factors are involved. Treatment Treatment for PTSD typically begins with a detailed evaluation and development of a treatment plan that meets the unique needs of the survivor. Understanding that PTSD is a medically recognized disorder is essential for effective treatment.

Exposure to the event via imagery allows the survivor to re-experience the event in a safe, controlled environment. A professional can carefully examine reactions and beliefs in relation to that event. Examining and resolving strong feelings such as shame , anger, or guilt, which are common among survivors of trauma.

Teaching the survivor to cope with post-traumatic memories, reminders, reactions, and feelings without avoiding them or becoming overwhelmed or emotionally numb. Trauma memories usually do not go away entirely as a result of therapy, but new coping skills can make them more manageable.

Medications The U. The most common side effects of antidepressants like sertraline and paroxetine are: Headaches, which usually go away within a few days.

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Nausea, which usually goes away within a few days. Sleeplessness or drowsiness, which may occur during the first few weeks but then goes away. Sometimes the medication dose needs to be reduced or the time of day it is taken needs to be adjusted to help lessen these side effects. Agitation or feeling jittery. Sexual problems, which can affect both men and women, including reduced sex drive, and problems having and enjoying sex.

There are several parts to CBT, including: Exposure therapy: This therapy helps people be more aware of their experience. It uses mental imagery , writing, or visits to the place where the event happened.