Managers Pocket Guide to Effective Writing (Managers Pocket Guide Series)

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The operational plan shall document a procedure for the calibration and maintenance of measurement and recording equipment. Element 17 specifically requires that you document a procedure to calibrate and maintain this measurement and recording equipment. Verification of measuring and recording equipment may be a means for identifying that maintenance is required and in the context of the DWQMS may be considered an activity for maintaining such equipment.

The Do component of Element 17 requires that you implement and conform to the calibration and maintenance procedure. To demonstrate conformance to the requirements of Element 17, you will generally be required to provide evidence that:. The operational plan shall document a procedure to maintain a state of emergency preparedness that includes:. This element of the DWQMS is all about being prepared for emergency situations that could result in the loss of your ability to maintain the supply of safe drinking water to consumers. Emergency preparedness means identifying what could happen in your system to cause an emergency, and having processes and procedures in place to prepare for and respond to those emergencies.

The DWQMS requires that your operational plan includes emergency procedures and contact information, which includes information about:. The Do component of this element requires that you implement and conform to these procedures. The operating authority shall implement and conform to the procedure and shall ensure that internal Audits are conducted at least once every calendar year.

Specifically, the procedure must describe what you are auditing against, how often you do so, what in your QMS is being audited, how it is audited, and what records are created. While you are not required to audit all of your procedures every year, your audit procedures should clearly demonstrate how you are verifying conformity of the QMS with the requirements of the DWQMS. The audit procedures must also show how the planned audits are influenced by the previous audit results.

When something is found that does not conform to the requirements of the DWQMS , the procedure must also describe how you identify what needs to be corrected, and how the correction is initiated. The Do component of Element 19 requires that audits be performed as described in your operational plan, and performed in entirety at least once every calendar year.

The operational plan shall document a procedure for management review that evaluates the continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the quality management system and that includes consideration of:. The Plan component of Element 20 requires you to have a procedure for an annual management review, and lists the topics which the management review must cover. A review of these topics, which include compliance, consumer feedback, operational performance, audit information, etc.

The Do component of Element 20 requires implementation of and conformance to the procedure. It requires that reviews are undertaken at least once every calendar year, and requires that top management ensure the review is performed, deficiencies are identified, and the results are reported to the owner. Remember that as a requirement of Element 9—Organizational structure, roles, responsibilities and authorities, the person, persons or group of people within the management structure of the organization responsible for undertaking management reviews must be identified.

Consideration should be given to developing standardized materials to support and document the outcome of the management review, such as an agenda based on the Plan requirements of Element 20 to ensure that all the required topics are covered, and a summary of deficiencies, decisions and action items to facilitate completing tasks required in the Do requirements of Element The operating authority shall develop a procedure for tracking and measuring continual improvement of its quality management system by:.

The operating authority shall strive to continually improve the effectiveness of its quality management system by implementing and conforming to the procedure. Specifically, the DWQMS requires that you consider best management practices, and utilize corrective actions and preventive actions. While each issue will be unique , the process you use to evaluate and correct the issue should be consistent. Preventive actions are undertaken to address potential problems that have been identified.

These are issues that, if not actioned, could lead to a non-conformance. Your third-party auditor may identify these as opportunities for improvement, but preventive actions should not be limited to items identified during an audit. Items identified through staff suggestions, during management reviews, or during a routine review and update of procedures may also result in a preventive action.

Continual improvement is understanding what you do well, then finding ways to do it better. While reviewing best practices is required by Element 21, it is up to you to determine the scope, nature and extent of best practices that you will consider. It may be helpful to define what you would consider best practices within your organization, and evaluate their applicability to other areas.

It may also be helpful to share and discuss your best practices with neighboring systems, comparing your processes and procedures to those implemented in other systems is one of the best mechanisms for identifying potential areas for improvement. Skip to main content.

Accreditation In the context of the Licensing Program, accreditation is the verification by a third-party accreditation body that an operating authority has a QMS in place that meets the requirements of the DWQMS. Director Means the director appointed for the purposes of s. Do The operating authority shall establish and maintain the quality management system in accordance with the requirements of this Standard and the policies and procedures documented in the operational plan.

What does it mean? Element 2—Quality management system policy Plan The operational plan shall document a quality management system policy that provides the foundation for the quality management system, and: includes a commitment to the maintenance and continual improvement of the quality management system includes a commitment to the consumer to provide safe drinking water includes a commitment to comply with applicable legislation and regulations is in a form that can be communicated to all operating authority personnel, the owner and the public Do The operating authority shall establish and maintain a quality management system that is consistent with the quality management system Policy.

Additional commitments The policy statement can include additional commitments beyond the ones listed above. Do top management shall provide evidence of its commitment to an effective quality management system by: ensuring that a quality management system is in place that meets the requirements of this standard ensuring that the operating authority is aware of all applicable legislative and regulatory requirements communicating the quality management system according to the procedure for communications determining, obtaining or providing the resources needed to maintain and continually improve the quality management system What does it mean?

The DWQMS definition for top management requires that your top management must be people that meet the following criteria: they work within the operating authority they will make decisions about your QMS they will make recommendations to the owner about the subject system or subject systems they are at the highest level of management within the operating authority making these decisions and recommendations Top management does not have to be a single person.

Small private operating authority overseeing a small number of drinking water systems in part of Ontario Top management could consist of the president and the board members of the operating authority. Large private operating authority overseeing several drinking water systems across the province Top management could consist of the chief executive officer and board members of the operating authority.

Small municipal operating authority For municipalities that operate only one or two small drinking water systems, top management could consist of the water system manager and the water committee chair usually a member of council that liaises between drinking water system staff and the mayor and council. Large municipal operating authority For municipalities that operate several systems, top management could consist of two levels: corporate, which could consist of the Commissioner of Public Works and the Director of Water Supply operational, which could consist of the system managers and supervisors Keep in mind that the DWQMS is not intended to be prescriptive—you make the decision on who is top management based on your particular organizational structure.

Do top management shall appoint and authorize a quality management system representative who, irrespective of other responsibilities, shall: administer the quality management system by ensuring that processes and procedures needed for the quality management system are established and maintained report to top management on the performance of the quality management system and any need for improvement ensure that current versions of documents required by the quality management system are being used at all times ensure that personnel are aware of all applicable legislative and regulatory requirements that pertain to their duties for the operation of the subject system promote awareness of the quality management system throughout the operating authority What does it mean?

Many aspects of the QMS will have direct linkages to other areas of responsibility, such as: human resources Element 10 records management Element 5 operations Element 11, 16 and 17 customer outreach Element 12 infrastructure planning Elements 14 and 15 emergency planning Element 18 While the QMS representative may not necessarily be expected to carry out all activities associated with these areas of responsibility, they will be responsible for ensuring that the requirements of the DWQMS have been, and continue to be, met.

Element 5—Document and records control Plan The operational plan shall document a procedure for document and records control that describes how: Documents required by the quality management system are: kept current, legible and readily identifiable retrievable stored, protected, retained and disposed of Records required by the quality management system are: kept legible, and readily identifiable retrievable stored, protected, retained and disposed of Do The operating authority shall implement and conform to the procedure for document and records control and shall ensure that the quality management system documentation for the subject system includes: the operational plan and its associated policies and procedures documents and records determined by the operating authority as being needed to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of its operations the results of internal and external Audits and management reviews What does it mean?

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Element 9—Organizational structure, roles, responsibilities and authorities Plan The operational plan shall: describe the organizational structure of the operating authority including respective roles, responsibilities and authorities delineate corporate oversight roles, responsibilities and authorities in the case where the operating authority operates multiple subject systems identify the person, persons or group of people within the management structure of the organization responsible for undertaking the Management Review described in Element 20 identify the person, persons or group of people, having top management responsibilities required by this standard, along with their responsibilities identify the owner of the subject system Do The operating authority shall keep current the description of the organizational structure including respective roles, responsibilities and authorities, and shall communicate this information to operating authority personnel and the owner.

Element 11—Personnel coverage Plan The operational plan shall document a procedure to ensure that sufficient personnel meeting identified competencies are available for duties that directly affect drinking water quality. Do The operating authority shall implement and conform to the procedure. Element 12—Communications Plan The operational plan shall document a procedure for communications that describes how the relevant aspects of the quality management system are communicated between top management and: the owner operating authority personnel suppliers that have been identified as essential under Plan a of Element 13 of this standard the public Do The operating authority shall implement and conform to the procedure.

Element 13—Essential supplies and services Plan The operational plan shall: identify all supplies and services essential for the delivery of safe drinking water and shall state, for each supply or service, the means to ensure its procurement include a procedure by which the operating authority ensures the quality of essential supplies and services, in as much as they may affect drinking water quality Do The operating authority shall implement and conform to the procedure.

Element 14—Review and Provision of Infrastructure Plan The operational plan shall document a procedure for reviewing the adequacy of the infrastructure necessary to operate and maintain the subject system that: considers the outcomes of the risk assessment documented under Element 8 ensures that the adequacy of the infrastructure necessary to operate and maintain the subject system is reviewed at least once every Calendar Year Do The operating authority shall implement and conform to the procedure and communicate the findings of the review to the owner.

Element 16—Sampling, testing and monitoring Plan The operational plan shall document: a sampling, testing and monitoring procedure for process control and finished drinking water quality including requirements for sampling, testing and monitoring at the conditions most challenging to the subject system a description of relevant sampling, testing or monitoring activities, if any, that take place upstream of the subject system a procedure that describes how sampling, testing and monitoring results are recorded and shared between the operating authority and the owner, where applicable Do The operating authority shall implement and conform to the procedures.

Element 17—Measurement and recording equipment calibration and maintenance Plan The operational plan shall document a procedure for the calibration and maintenance of measurement and recording equipment. The DWQMS requires that your operational plan includes emergency procedures and contact information, which includes information about: communication, response and recovery procedures emergency response training testing your procedures to make sure they make sense responsibilities of personnel, the owner and the operating authority municipal emergency planning measures up-to-date lists of who to call in an emergency The Do component of this element requires that you implement and conform to these procedures.

Check elements of the DWQMS Element 19—Internal audits Plan The operational plan shall document a procedure for internal audits that: evaluates conformity of the quality management system with the requirements of this standard identifies internal audit criteria, frequency, scope, methodology and record-keeping requirements considers previous internal and external audit results describes how quality management system corrective actions are identified and initiated Do The operating authority shall implement and conform to the procedure and shall ensure that internal Audits are conducted at least once every calendar year.

Improve element of the DWQMS Element 21—Continual improvement Plan The operating authority shall develop a procedure for tracking and measuring continual improvement of its quality management system by: reviewing and considering applicable best management practices, including any published by the Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks and available on www. What does this mean? Implement any other changes to your operational plan, policies and procedures prior to the first audit of your system that occurs in Have you reviewed your operational plan to verify that references to portions of the DWQMS have been updated to reflect any administrative updates to language or numbering of the requirements?

Have you verified that your operational plan conforms to the requirements of Element 6, and includes all of the information required for the type s of drinking water system included in the plan? Does your procedure for reviewing the adequacy of the infrastructure necessary to operate and maintain the system Element 14 consider the outcomes of your risk assessment? Does your operational plan include a long term forecast of major infrastructure maintenance, rehabilitation and renewal activities Element 15?

Does your operational plan include a procedure or process for reviewing and considering best management practices? Does your operational plan include a procedure or process for identification and management of corrective actions? Does your operational plan include a procedure or process for identifying and implementing preventive actions? If necessary based on your operational plan, has the operational plan been re-endorsed by top management and by the owner?

Have you contacted your accreditation body or auditor to indicate that your operational plan has been updated to conform to DWQMS 2. Have you completed your management review, documented the results and developed a plan for any items that were identified? Have you prepared work space on-site, as necessary, for the auditor? Are your records readily available on-site for the auditor to review? OverDrive uses cookies and similar technologies to improve your experience, monitor our performance, and understand overall usage trends for OverDrive services including OverDrive websites and apps.

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Kakovitch 1 Stephen Sampson 1 Stephen J. Carkhuff 1 Rick Tate 1 Richard Gerson 1. Demonstrate the use of empathy statements. Act like a mirror and reflect the childs feelings by expressing your understanding and caring. Ignore nuisance behavior and let the little stuff slide but not problem behavior if it surfaces. Stay cool throughout the process, which can be easier said than done.

Source: Latham The steps associated with rapport building may also be viewed as component parts of basic interpersonal communication skills in their simplest sense. As such, this task analysis may also be used as a form of curriculum when providing direct instruction to particular students who require help in acquiring basic social interaction skills. At first glance, understanding the mechanics the observable behaviors of building rapport appears relatively easy. Nervousness and anxiety complicate applying these steps because it may feel risky to reach out in this manner to a student or small number of students from whom you are already feeling distant.

Having a clear understanding of. Beyond your basic understanding of the mechanics of building rapport, it is also important to provide you with some guidance about appropriate situations in which to employ these procedures. To explain the process of reaching out, think about some experiences in your personal life. Specifically, think back to some point in time when you were at some social gathering e.

Lets say you are at this event where you know some, but not all, of the guests. Suddenly, you see this person whom you do not know but would really like to get to know call it physical attraction if you want. Now, if you are like most people I know, even though you may think youre courageous, you would not just take the risk and go for it by directly and impulsively approaching this person. In reality, you would probably give some time and thought to a number of things before making your fi rst overture.

Specifically, you would likely 1 think about how to approach him or her, 2 talk with someone at the event that you already know who happens to know him or her, 3 think about what types of things are of interest to him or her to start a conversation, and 4 fi nd a natural way so it does not seem contrived to bump into him or her to have a conversation, and so forth.

In other words, you likely give many things a lot of thought even if it is within a very short period of time before you make your approach. You are concerned about these things for a number of reasons, which can generally be summarized as you never get a second chance to make a fi rst impression. Now, with this as a mental context, think about a particular kid or two with whom you need to develop a more conducive level of rapport. You will want to give serious.

Furthermore, you will need to think about appropriate situations conducive settings in which you can constructively get some level of dialogue started with him or her regarding these interests. What I am talking about here is what I like to describe as breaking the ice and strategic use of ice breakers. Now to do this, you will likely have to give some time and thought conduct some research, so to speak to fi gure out what interests to tap into as well as what situations conducive settings to target.

You are looking for opportunities within the students typical daily routine that are noninstructional in nature that would lend themselves to social interaction e. You want to provide free access to your attention noncontingent in this sense. Along these same lines, it is important to understand that you can use rapport-building procedures in a couple of ways, either in a one-to-one situation with the focus student or in small-group situations using other students, with whom your rapport is stable, as social brokers with the student of concern.

There is no one right way that is necessarily better than the other to start the process. My best advice is to pick one that you feel the most comfortable with or one that you are the least uncomfortable with as you plan your approach.

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Ideally, you will fi nd yourself using a combination of these approaches as your confidence with your students grows. For example, Jimmy is a student from whom you are feeling increasingly distant. You have done some. Based on your detective work you found out that he is a part of the video-gaming club at the middle school in which you teach. Knowing this, you begin to look for opportunities short snippets of time or windows of opportunity during club time at school as well as during the common lunch period that you share with Jimmy to ask his advice on video game purchases for a friends kid.

You continue to build on these You never get a second interactions by exploring ways chance to make a first to have additional brief conimpression. The fi nal point on applying rapport-building strategies is to understand that a given student from whom you feel distant will unlikely open up to you after your fi rst attempt to break the ice. Sometimes it will happen, but this is more the exception to the rule. It is more likely that incrementally, over time, a given student will gradually allow you to get closer to him or her as his or her comfort level with you grows.

In other words, as with most relationships, it will take time to evolve. The key in using rapport-building procedures is to use them whenever and wherever you fi nd or can create the opportunity. You will need to do this systematically with students from whom you feel distant those who are potentially at risk in your classroom. Although you will not be able to predict how long it will take with any given student, the one thing you can have confidence in is that the relationship will likely improve over the course of time.

Also, understand that unlike the personal social interaction that I asked you to reflect on earlier, your intent with. Rather, rapport-building procedures applied in this fashion usually take as little time as 15 Over time, a given seconds up to 2 minutes, dependstudent will gradually ing on the situation. Thus the key allow you to get is fi nding easily accessible noncloser to him or her instructional times throughout as his or her comfort the typical school day as previlevel with you grows.

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In other words, pick the low- hanging fruit in terms of easy and frequent access rather than identifying less frequently available situations and or settings e. Therefore, the key or power is in the cumulative effect over time based on your repeated interactions with your students.

Now, as important as rapport-building procedures are and make no mistake about it, they are important they represent only one of the proverbial legs of the threelegged stool of prevention. In other words, establishing a good working rapport with all your students will get you so far, but by itself it will be insufficient in terms of classroom management.

It is important to combine such strategies to connect with your students by establishing clear and reasonably high behavioral expectations in your classroom. As such, lets turn our attention to establishing expectations with your studentsthe second leg of our three-legged stool of effective classroom management. It is helpful to be familiar with the past as we forge toward the future.

As such, I thought you might enjoy a quick glimpse in the rearview mirror into the past of school discipline and, in particular, codes of conduct from the early s see Table 5. I fi nd the behavior concerns and corresponding consequences from this era whimsically of interest. In particular, if boys and girls playing together is worth four lashes, then it really makes me wonder what they had in mind in terms of misbehaving girls ten lashes.

I mean, my imagination is really running wild on this one. What if those girls were playing cards while misbehaving around the creek, mill, or barn? Anyway, beyond the humor in looking into the past, there is one important takeaway from our disciplinary history. The behaviors noted although reflective of that particular era emphasize an exclusively punitive approach to establishing behavior expectations.

In other words, what is provided is simply a list of proverbial thou shalt nots, with varying degrees of retribution for various offenses. Although one should Although we could change items. Both the literature and experience tell us that the most effective way to influence student behavior is by being clear about what you want your students to do, directly teaching the expected behavior and providing reinforcement to your students when they do it. Although it is certainly relevant to have naturally occurring consequences for student misbehavior short of the lashes, of course, regardless of the era , such consequences are most effective when delivered in concert with high levels of positive reinforcement for expected behavior.

For example, it is certainly understandable that we do not want to see students bullying other students in our classrooms. Having said this, however, the most effective way to minimize the likelihood of such problem behavior is by investing our time and attention on providing explicitly clear expectaAlthough it is certainly tions for alternative appropriate relevant to have behaviors e. On the surare most effective face, this may seem like nothing when delivered in more than a game of semantics, concert with high but when you look at this in levels of positive the larger scheme of classroom reinforcement for management, it is as different expected behavior.

For the record, I am not nave, nor am I proposing that you take what might be understandably dismissed as a Walden Two approach to classroom management in which life is beautiful all the time and we sit around. Look, we all need to have specific procedures and consequences for undesired behavior in place in our classrooms.

The key to preventing problem behavior from occurring in the fi rst place, however, is establishing clear expectations for desired behavior, directly teaching the expected behavior, and reinforcing our students as they perform those same behaviors regularly. Establishing student behavior expectations in the classroom and schools in general has received much attention over the years. Increasingly schools have been expanding the application of scientifically validated approaches to enhance the academic, social, and emotional learning of students.

The multitiered framework known as PBIS that is being implemented in thousands of schools across the country and abroad is one of these scientifically validated approaches.

Communicating for Success

Establishing clear expectations is, without question, one of the cornerstones in schools implementing PBIS. However, and not surprisingly, there continues to be discussion in the field about implementing expectations that make sense and are feasible for any classroom teacherwhether in a PBIS school or a more traditional school setting. In other words, it is important to breathe life into what the research literature suggests in a manner that is both useful and user friendly.

Table 5. As the old saying goes, one needs to know the bulls-eye if one is to be held accountable for hitting the mark. As such, you need to start by identifying three to five no more, no less broad behavior expectations that encompass the types. Fundamental aspects of establishing clear behavioral expectations in the classroom Select three to five positively stated, broad behavioral expectations.

Try to engage your students in the process. Post your behavioral expectations prominently in your classroom. Provide initial instruction concerning your expectations at the start of the year, and provide booster sessions periodically throughout the school year. Reinforce your students on a regular basis for appropriate behaviorcatch them being good. Have clear, systematic and reasonable consequences for student problem behavior. There is not an exclusive set of expectations in the literature for use in your classroom; the key is to identify expectations that make sense to you in your specific classroom.

Have fun with acronyms and mnemonics as you see appropriate. For example, some teachers have used the Three Bees noted previously and subsequently have employed a bumblebee motif throughout the year in their classrooms. Obviously, if you are teaching in a PBIS school, you will want to be sure to use the already identified three to five expectations that your school has targeted. You will, of course, have greater latitude in identifying your three to five expectations if. Identifying your broad, positively stated expectations is the fi rst step in establishing student behavior expectations in your classroom.

The next step is to think about your classroom and the types of activities you will have the students do within your classroom. This second step in the It is important to process of establishing your expecbreathe life into tations for your classroom is generwhat the research ally the same regardless of whether literature suggests you teach in a PBIS or more tradiin a manner that tional school setting.

As you think is both useful and about your classroom, think about user friendly. You may be able to draw from your database e. If not, rely on your intuitive recollection based on your instructional experiences in your classroom. If you are new to your classroom this year, then think about the types of situations that might predictably have the greatest likelihood to create either confusion or problem behavior in your students.

Specifically, think about physical locations within your room e. Identifying four or five of your highest priority settings and routines is a necessary next. I encourage you to use the matrix depicted in Figure 5. Furthermore, along these same lines, asking this question significantly increases the likelihood of operationally defi ning expected behaviors that are desirable as opposed to creating a modern-day version of thou shalt nots. To help you in this regard, I encourage you to apply what has been commonly referred to as the dead man test to any behavior expectation that you establish in your classroom.

If you answer yes e. A simple way to think Applying the dead man test can about operationally help you minimize the likelihood defining any given of defi ning your broad expectaexpectation is to tions in terms of statements such ask yourself, What as no running, no stealing, no would my students fi ghting, no swearing, all the way look and sound like up through no boys going into if they were meeting girl play spaces. Applying the dead man test in this manner can also help you reduce the likelihood of awkward moments with.

I know, I know each of us always seems to have If a dead person one kiddo like this in the classcan perform the room who can drive you crazy to expectation, then the point of needing to fi ght the it is probably not a urge on a particularly difficult particularly useful day to say something to the effect behavior expectation of, Well, binding your hands in terms of serving and feet is not on the list either. But reinforcement. Anyway, I think you get my point in this regard.

The Appendix at the end of this book includes examples of behavior expectation matrices from various elementary, middle, and high school classrooms to help get you started. We all generally accept the notion that good instructional practices engage students actively as learners in our classrooms.

This is, of course, equally applicable in classrooms within PBIS schools and more traditional school systems. Although there are a number of good reasons to consciously consider doing this, the two most important reasons are that by doing so you 1 are actually preteaching the expectations as a result of the process of asking the kids to help you defi ne the expectations and 2 increase the initial degree of buy-in. This, much like the initial selection of your broad expectations, can take on many forms. The key is to fi nd the way with which you are most comfortable in engaging your students in the process.

For example, at the beginning of the school year, have each student come up with some privately developed operational defi nitions and then have students do some pair-share work leading up to a large-group discussion in your classroom. Be sure to have your kids apply the dead man test for all the previous noted reasonsplus it can add to the fun in your classroom! Your professional judgment, of course, will serve as your primary navigational device along these same lines.

The key is that you can engage your students in the process and actually have fun based on what you believe is the best way to go in your classroom. As with any aspect of effective teaching, it is important to provide clear expectations for student performance in concert with directly teaching the behavior expectations coupled with reinforcement for student performance of your expectations on an ongoing basis. It is important to post your established behavior expectations clearly to support your students to collectively act in a manner that creates a culture of social competence within your classroom.

This is, of course, the exact same approach used in nonclassroom settings in your building if you teach in a PBIS school e. A culture of social competence will develop in your classroom over time as your stuIt is important to post dents are reminded by the public your established posting of the expectations in behavior expectations tandem with your direct instrucclearly to support your tion and reinforcement procestudents to collectively dures and with your students act in a manner that prompting appropriate social creates a culture of behavior from one another regsocial competence ularly.

Public posting will also within your classroom. So what is reinforcement, and, in particular, how should reinforcers be used in the classroom? There are two types of reinforcement: positive and negative. Understanding the similarities and differences between these two forms of reinforcement will set the stage for effectively selecting and using reinforcers with students in your classroom as a part of your management system. By defi nition and yes, it will be necessary to use some jargon for a bit, so please bear with me , positive reinforcement is the presentation of a desired stimulus contingent on the performance of a desired behavior in order to increase the likelihood of future recurrence of that same desired behavior e.

In a compatible yet contrasting manner, negative reinforcement is the removal of an undesired stimulus upon the performance of a desired behavior in order to increase the likelihood of future recurrence of that same desired behavior. For example, if a teacher needs to escort a student from class to class because he or she is having problems during class transitions, then once the Presuming that the student prefers to not be escorted by the teacher, the removal of the escort is negaUnderstanding tive reinforcement.

As set the stage for a high school special education effectively selecting teacher supporting students and using reinforcers with disabilities within incluwith students in your sive classroom settings there classroom as a part were many different students of your management for whom I shared responsibilsystem. One who comes immediately to mind was Sam, who was in 11th grade. One of the expectations established with Sam was for him to constructively use his assigned study hall time at the end of the day 2 days per week to begin completion of his homework assignments.

Sam historically was inconsistent at best with homework completion. Now, in light of this expectation, it would have been possible for me to get Sam to work on his homework during a given study hall through frequent verbal reminders every time I would see Sam throughout the day leading up to study hall which Sam would likely have viewed as nagging. Furthermore, if this became the predominant way in which I tried to get Sam to meet this expectation, he may have complied in the short run for that given study hall , but this would likely have not been sustainable behavior change, as it would be mostly dependent on me nagging Sam daily.

I may have also inadvertently undercut my ability to build rapport over the long run as a result of being increasingly viewed by Sam as a nagsomeone to be avoided. The bottom line is that positive reinforcement in a general sense is the more constructive way to go in terms of reinforcement. Now, make no mistake about it, both positive and negative reinforcement procedures are just that: reinforcement procedures. In other words, negative reinforcement The bottom line is that is not punishment. Rather, both positive reinforcement forms of reinforcement have in a general sense is the result of increasing the likethe more constructive lihood of desired behavior.

Posway to go in terms of itive reinforcement, however, is reinforcement. Most important, it increases the likelihood of desired behavior in a way that also helps you build and maintain rapport with your students. In other words, as in my example with Sam, you do not want to jeopardize or trade off your rapport to simply see dull compliance in the short run as a result of using negative reinforcement on a regular or increasing basis which can become a very slippery slope.

Used sparingly and interspersed with a lot of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement can be useful, but it should come with a warning label that advises all of us to use it with extreme caution. Having noted the relationship between positive and negative reinforcement and having learned that positive reinforcement is really the name of the classroom management game, it is important to identify things such as praise, privileges, and attention that your students enjoy. First consider the reinforcing nature of your time and attention, as this is readily at your disposal.

By this, I am not suggesting that attention is a universal reinforcer that will work You do not want to with each student in all situations. The of using negative key to selecting reinforcers is fi greinforcement on a uring out your students interests. The challenge comes in understanding your students and fi guring out what makes each one tick so to speak. You will likely fi nd that acknowledging appropriate behavior in the form of praise is a relatively cost-effective form of reinforcement that you can easily use daily in your classroom.

You can always build in additional systematic forms of reinforcement in your classroom e. This can easily be done in a manner compatible with other forms of lottery-type drawings that may already be in operation if you happen to be teaching in a PBIS school. However, this can also be accomplished in your classroom if you happen to be teaching in a more traditional school setting. It is essential to pair precise verbal praise that makes clear to the student the action that is.

One of the more common uses of reinforcement procedures involves applying the Premack Principle, in which access to something stimulus that is desired is made contingent on the performance or use of something stimulus that is less preAcknowledging ferred in such a manner that the likeappropriate lihood of increased performance or behavior in the use of the preferred thing stimulus form of praise is becomes more predictable over time. Premack Principle, do you feel confident enough in your understanding to start to apply it in your classroom daily?

Your initial reaction to the previous descriptions of the Premack Principle may be similar to my initial reaction when a mentor exposed me to these same descriptions What a bunch of gobbledy gook.


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Why cant people just say things in plain language? The defi nition I have given, although technically accurate, leaves much for translation and does little to help you gain a practical understanding of this important concept. Perhaps a more user-friendly way to defi ne this principle of reinforcement is to rename it the Meal Time Rule. The Meal Time Rule is familiar to parents and children alike: You can have dessert after you eat all your vegetables.

The Premack Principle, although important, is nothing more than having an understanding that in life sometimes you have to do one thing that is not necessarily something you enjoy doing for its own sake, such as eating your vegetables in order to gain access to. Now, some may say this is nothing more than bribery and that it is manipulative in nature.

I guess in a narrow sense it is, but if this is true, then so too is much of life because gaining access to things that we prefer is often somewhat contingent on our performance of other things e. The reality is more than having an that the Premack Principle understanding that is in play every day in each of in life sometimes you our lives. In other words, it is have to do one thing not just something that is used in order to gain access by you or me as a teacher but to another thing.

Beyond the Meal Time Rule, Table 6. Now, with your current understanding about the principle of reinforcement and the nature of reinforcers , lets turn our attention to the pragmatics of using reinforcement in your classroom regularly. Providing structured opportunities to respond OTRs becomes essential to establishing a positive learning environment in your classroom. Student engagement serves as the foundation of constructing opportunities to deliver positive reinforcement to students when they meet expectations.

Experience and the literature clearly indicates that students tend to demonstrate fewer behavioral problems and improved academic achievement when teachers provide more OTRs within the ebb and flow of classroom instruction. So the more frequently you can have your students directly engaged through responding to questions the. Table 6. Examples of the Premack Principle in everyday life Less desired behavior. As a person in a relationship, if you will simply be still and listen as opposed to trying to solve the problem when your significant other is going off sharing about something that upset him or her that day at work.

One common misunderstanding about reinforcing student behavior is that many teachers feel that in order to be fair, everyone should get the same amount of reinforcement e. Simply put, fairness does not necessarily mean that everyone gets the same thing at the same time. Rather, fairness really means especially in the learning process within your classroom that everyone gets what he or she needs with the understanding that needs will vary from student to student and that these needs change over time and across different situations.


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To help you understand this point, I will paraphrase Dr. Richard Lavoie presenter of the F. Suppose that I am providing a professional development training session at a local school when, suddenly, a. How ludicrous would it be if I said, Susan, I would really like to help you out here.

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In fact, that everyone gets I am certified in both. I could what he or she needs save your life, but I just dont with the understanding have time to give everyone in that needs will vary the classroom CPR or mouthfrom student to to-mouth resuscitation. It just student and that wouldnt be fair for me to give these needs change it to you and not to the rest of over time and across these nice folks in attendance different situations. So although I dont like it any more than you do, I guess you are on your own. You see, the issue of fairness is really about providing access to what students need so that those same students are in a position to benefit from instruction.

This, in fact, is the underlying rationale behind larger-school and communitysponsored endeavors such as breakfast programs at school, free and reduced lunch endeavors, and other forms of extended school services such as after-school child care. To reiterate, fairness does not necessarily mean that everyone gets the same thing at the same time.

Rather, fairness really means especially in the learning process within your classroom that each student gets what he or she needs with the understanding that personal needs will vary from student to student and that these needs change over time and across different situations. Another way to think about differences of need in your classroom in terms of reinforcement and your ability to differentiate your use of reinforcement to meet each of your students needs is through the following analogy. Differentiating reinforcement procedures among students. I mean, you and I eat in general only when we are hungry with perhaps the exception of holiday gluttony.

For example, lets say you and a friend are attending my in-service training. You have just come from lunch where you were able to order your favorite food from a local eatery, and you are stuffed. Another friend, however, missed lunch today due to an appointment. So I kindly offer her some peanut butter crackers that I happen to have in my travel bag. I do not offer you the same. As long as you dont feel that my failure to offer you some crackers was mean-spirited in nature, its unlikely that youre going to get too upset that your colleague was offered something to eat and you were not because you currently feel full and you know and you know that I am also aware that your friend is hungry.

Your friend has a need for something to eat at this moment in time, whereas you do not. This doesnt mean that you will never be hungry again. Rather, you simply are not hungry at this moment in time. Thinking about differentiating your practice of reinforcement in this way can be very useful in that 1 it helps you understand that what is reinforcing at a given moment in time is relative to the person being reinforced and 2 it can be liberating as a teacher to understand that the goal is not to deliver the exact same amount of reinforcement e.

I mean, in a practical sense, how do I make this work in my classroom? Well, fi rst, I encourage you to understand that there is not some preset number of times that reinforcement should be delivered on any given day and instead to think about your reinforcement procedures in terms of what I like to describe as a range of proportionality. By this I mean that you want to aim to provide four instances of positive reinforcement for any given students appropriate social behavior for every one time you fi nd yourself giving that same student corrective feedback for problem behavior.

This is what is meant in the educational field by achieving the infamous ratio. Now, in this sense, everyone gets access to the same thing your achievement of this ratio. What is different from student to student may be the time interval within which the ratio is achieved based on each students needs.

Lets say you have three particular kids in your second-grade classroom who, for a variety of reasons to your minds eye, are increasingly becoming distant from you despite your efforts to increase rapport-building opportunities with each of them. In a parallel sense you fi nd yourself correcting problem behavior with each of these three kids to a greater extent than the rest of your class. Lets say Jane seems to warrant corrective feedback from you once daily, Carlos about twice as often on average once in the morning and once every afternoon , and Jimmy once every class period six to eight times per day.

So what does this ratio look like with these three kids in concert with all the other students in your classroom? Simply use your instincts with each student in question, coupled with your expertise and understanding about the principle of reinforcement, including your understanding of proportionality in achieving the ratio. You know based on current levels of behavioral performance that you have a reasonably long period of time to catch the bulk of your kids in your classroom on their best behavior.

In other words, their low or even nonexistent level of problem.

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Now in general it wouldnt hurt to reinforce the others in your classroom for prosocial behavior on a more frequent basis, but the point is that you have the luxury of more time with most of your kids based on their current levels of performance. The time interval for Jane is a bit more prescribed in that her daily rate of problem behavior her baseline suggests that you may have up to no more than a full day within which to catch Jane doing things the right way on at least four occasions.

Carlos, based on his needs, has a tighter time interval, in that you need to have him on your radar screen four times in the morning and four times in the afternoon, catching him doing things the correct way. Jimmy, based on his pattern of behavioral need, will require you to systematically attend to him in order to catch him doing things the correct way four times each class period in order to constructively prevent problem behavior over the longer term and yes, for the record, Jimmy appears to be a higher maintenance kid than others.

This type of differentiation in your professional practice is based on student need, not preference per se on your part. In other words, you are not favoring one student over another; you are professionally differentiating your instructional practice based on your understanding of your students needs. What is consistent is achieving the targeted ratio with each of your students; what varies is the time interval within which you are working, based on the level of your students needs.

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