Hairy-Cell Leukaemia

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The prognosis chance of recovery depends on the following:. Treatment often results in a long-lasting remission a period during which some or all of the signs and symptoms of the leukemia are gone. If the leukemia returns after it has been in remission, retreatment often causes another remission. Staging is the process used to find out how far the cancer has spread. There is no standard staging system for hairy cell leukemia. In untreated hairy cell leukemia , some or all of the following conditions occur:. Relapsed hairy cell leukemia has come back after treatment.

Refractory hairy cell leukemia has not responded to treatment.

Hairy cell leukaemia

Different types of treatment are available for patients with hairy cell leukemia. Some treatments are standard the currently used treatment , and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.

Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient's condition , without giving any treatment until signs or symptoms appear or change.

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells , either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body systemic chemotherapy.

When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid , an organ , or a body cavity such as the abdomen , the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas regional chemotherapy. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Cladribine and pentostatin are anticancer drugs commonly used to treat hairy cell leukemia.

These drugs may increase the risk of other types of cancer, especially Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Long-term follow up for second cancers is very important. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.

Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version

Interferon alfa is a biologic agent commonly used to treat hairy cell leukemia. Splenectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the spleen. Targeted therapy is a treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of targeted therapy used to treat hairy cell leukemia. Monoclonal antibody therapy uses antibodies made in the laboratory from a single type of immune system cell.

These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow.

The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins , or radioactive material directly to cancer cells. A monoclonal antibody called rituximab may be used for certain patients with hairy cell leukemia. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website.

For information about side effects caused by treatment for cancer, see our Side Effects page. For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.

Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment. Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward. Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better.

There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring coming back or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment. Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials. Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated.

Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred come back. These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups. For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section. Treatment of hairy cell leukemia may include the following:.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients.

Survival | Hairy cell leukaemia | Cancer Research UK

You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available. Treatment of relapsed or refractory hairy cell leukemia may include the following:. For more information from the National Cancer Institute about hairy cell leukemia, see the following:.

For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.

The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care.

Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when there is new information. The date on each summary "Updated" is the date of the most recent change. The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board.

A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies and what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients.

During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard. Clinical trials can be found online at NCI's website. PDQ is a registered trademark. The content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text.

Symptoms of hairy cell leukaemia

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A B-cell malignancy that is characterized commonly by symptoms of fatigue, a markedly enlarged spleen, and a distinctive histologic appearance on peripheral blood smear and bone marrow biopsy. The disease is not curable. However, it is highly responsive to therapy and may be managed successfully for a decade or more. Patients who are without symptoms do not require immediate treatment; early treatment does not extend life expectancy. In symptomatic patients, purine analogs have largely replaced traditional therapies, such as splenectomy, except in rare cases of splenic rupture or massive splenomegaly.

Supportive care with antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, administration of irradiated blood products, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factors may have a role in therapy for hairy cell leukemia. Hairy cell leukemia HCL is an uncommon, indolent, mature B-cell neoplasm. It was described as a distinct clinical entity in Hairy cell leukemia. In: WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, vol 2, 4th ed. Seen under the microscope, the cells have delicate cytoplasmic projections, resembling hair, and that is why the disease was named HCL.

The disease has a characteristic presentation of pancytopenia, splenomegaly, and circulating hairy cells in blood, marrow, and other hematopoietic organs. Hairy cell leukemia is infrequent in Mexico and has a geographic distribution. Am J Hematol.

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BD declares that he has no competing interests. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: hairy cell leukemia. Hairy cell leukaemia. Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer.