Louis and New York. Although Sigel ultimately failed as a general, his celebrity status inspired many German Americans to support the Union cause. The following is a selected list of books, articles, and manuscripts about Franz Sigel in the research centers of The State Historical Society of Missouri. All links will open in a new tab. Last Name. Time Period. Franz Sigel - Sigel entered law school at the University of Heidelberg, but the Revolutions of During the s, ideas favoring democratic government led by elected officials were popular in European intellectual circles.
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In January of , revolutionaries overthrew the royal government in Sicily and created a democratic government with a constitution. In February revolutionaries overthrew the monarchy in France.
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In March the revolution spread to Germany, where revolutionaries raised armies and called for democratic reforms and the political unity of Germany, which at that time was not one nation but rather a number of separate states. Most of the nations in western Europe experienced revolutions during , but almost all of them failed.
A wave of European revolutionaries, many of them German, fled to safety in the United States.
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Violence broke out in St. Louis arsenal against Confederate troops.
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Boyd, , p. On May 10, , Union military forces captured a pro-secession state militia camped outside of St. The men in the camp were preparing to capture a federal arsenal and give its weapons and other military supplies to the South, but the Union forces prevented them from attacking the arsenal. A riot broke out when the captured men were marched into the city, and twenty-eight people were killed when the soldiers fired into the crowd.
Battle of Carthage Battle of Carthage. Franz Sigel Franz Sigel.
Full-length portrait of Major General Franz Sigel, c. References and Resources For more information about Franz Sigel's life and career, see the following resources:.
Society Resources The following is a selected list of books, articles, and manuscripts about Franz Sigel in the research centers of The State Historical Society of Missouri. Letter of Gen. Giffen, Lawrence E. Sigel, Franz.http://db2.goonvpn.com/qyho-facebook-tracking-on.php
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August 27, Louis Post-Dispatch. August 21, As the Commander of the Department of the South, Hunter made a pronouncement that caused controversy across the United States. Hunter, a strong advocate of arming blacks as soldiers for the Union cause, issued General Order No.
General Order No. This was accordingly done on the 25th day of April, Slavery and martial law in a free country are altogether incompatible; the persons in these three States — Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina— heretofore held as slaves, are therefore declared forever free. After General Order No. This order was quickly rescinded by Abraham Lincoln, who was concerned about the political effects that it would have in the border states, driving some slave holders to support the Confederacy.
Lincoln's own Emancipation Proclamation was announced in September, taking effect in January Nevertheless, the South was furious at Hunter's action and Confederate president Jefferson Davis issued orders to the Confederate Armies that Hunter was to be considered a "felon to be executed if captured.
Hunter served through the rest of the American Civil War. He was also part of the honor guard at the funeral of Abraham Lincoln and accompanied his body back to Springfield in the spring of Hunter would later become the president of the military commission that tried the conspirators of Lincoln's assassination, in the summer of He retired from the Army in July He was the author of Report of the Military Services of Gen.
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David Hunter, U. Regular army officers, including Halleck, viewed many citizen generals as incompetent and self-promoters. None of these topics are novel to Civil War students. Yet the evidence he presents calls that conclusion into question. Butler and Hurlbut were unquestionably corrupt and used their administrative positions to become wealthy. For instance, he could have compared and contrasted General Edward R. However, political generals compiled mixed records on other issues regarding African Americans.
Also, political generals were not positively unified in reaction to the Emancipation Proclamation and the decision to enlist African-American soldiers. The energy expended on self-promotion often outweighed the few positive contributions some generals made as stump speakers. Overall, it was refreshing to read a monograph that takes seriously the contributions of political generals to the war effort.
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However, the author did not fully convince this reviewer that political generals were a positive benefit to the cause. It is difficult to assess the positive value of political generals as a whole when arguments about their effectiveness are based upon a small sample that is implied, and not demonstrated, to be representative of the larger context of political generals and their capabilities. Likewise, an evaluation of political generals in contrast to the performances of regular army generals would have been helpful.
There are some other more minor flaws in the book. This might be excused as a typographical error, but the error is repeated in the endnote. Regarding the endnotes, they are exclusively source-only citations. Some discussion in the endnotes of secondary works or evaluation of primary sources would have been helpful. Although Work does employ a good number of manuscript sources, it is surprising that he did not better utilize the voluminous manuscript collections of Banks and Butler, especially considering the prominence of both generals in the book.
Work had a difficult task in trying to positively reevaluate a group of commanders that have so often been denounced or simply ignored in secondary sources. General readers and Civil War enthusiasts will no doubt enjoy learning more about the careers of officers that are rarely discussed in the standard literature. There is also a real benefit in the final three chapters of the book for students and scholars alike to reconsider assumptions about how to assess the impact of a Civil War general, especially a politically appointed one.
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Hopefully, the study Work has presented will serve as a stepping-stone for scholars to a more comprehensive evaluation of political generals in the future.